If there is one seminal work that can be said as initially defining the field of Red Teaming, it is “The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook: Formerly The Red Team Handbook”, published by the US Army. The current document is in version 7 and was uopdatedin januare 2015.
This handbook gives you both the philosphical, hiostorical and practical perspectives on Red Teaming as well as introduces key concepts and tools, such as the definition of Critical Thinking or how to mitigate Groupthink and challenge assumptions through a comprehensive toolbox.
The book does have a clear military origin, but is highly adaptible to a business environment. Get it or free on the web.